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Revisiting U.S. Personal Conveyance

The 2-year anniversary for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s (FMCSA’s) Regulatory Guidance concerning the use of a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) for personal conveyance is just around corner. I still get numerous questions at Ask The Expert by motor carriers and drivers on how and when to use this off-duty time, so I thought of revisiting this topic.  

In the simplest of terms, the use of personal conveyance is merely a tool, used to account for the movement of a CMV while a driver is off-duty.  Consequently, there were no changes to the current 11 or 14-hour limitations for truck drivers, the 10 or 15-hour limitations for bus drivers, the 60/70-hour limitations, the 34-hour restart provisions, or any other on-duty status. Nothing changes here!

Although FMCSA attempted to add clarity to this duty status, the waters seem to remain somewhat muddy. 

The result is that this relaxed interpretation although seen by some as an olive branch to appease drivers that are irate with ELD, did not sufficiently clarify what is acceptable personal conveyance. 

Therefore, the void of open and transparent direction has evolved into a subjective standard that will be left in the hands of the driver to interpret, and the discretion of DOT at the roadside and during a facility audit.

Loaded vs Unloaded Vehicles

 One very significant reform initiated by FMCSA is the requirement that a CMV be unladen or empty to qualify is no longer the case. The justification why FMCSA elected to include loaded vehicles may be partially due to a new generation of vehicles where goods and incidental equipment cannot be removed from the truck or trailer.   Therefore, whether loaded or empty, the new personal conveyance guidance will now default to the nature of the activity of the CMV to assess whether personal conveyance can be selected by a driver.  

Unlike in Canada, where personal use is prescribed in the HOS regulation, FMCSA decided not to provide specific language in Part 395. This includes not prescribing any distance and/or time limits for personal conveyance.  

That being said, the guidance did provide some examples of how personal conveyance can and cannot be used.  These examples and the explanation below do provide some insight into some of the changes. 

Drivers who frequently had to wait to be loaded or unloaded would eat away at a driver’s hours of service productive time, yet in many cases, that same driver would be unable to get the required rest on that client’s private property.  I have heard repeated complaints from drivers being ordered to leave a premise thereafter.   

Under the new guidance, the time spent travelling to a nearby, reasonable, safe location to get the required rest after loading or unloading can now be claimed as off-duty under personal conveyance category. 

It is important to note that the driving time must allow adequate time for required rest, and must be to the first resting location reasonably available. One additional point is to ensure that your motor carrier is, in fact, permitting you to use the CMV for personal use, as some carriers have clear policies forbidding such use.  Further, who determines what is a first resting location reasonably available remains up for debate.    

The guidance goes on to say that if the driver cannot park at the nearest location, they should annotate this fact in the remarks section of the log. My recommendation is that the driver should always annotate his/her activities under personal conveyance regardless of circumstances.  Being proactive will go a long way in minimizing future debates with a safety official after the fact. When in doubt follow the CYA protocol, always! 

Request to Move While Off-Duty 

The second significant clarification is that personal conveyance also includes moving a CMV at the request of a safety official when a driver is otherwise off duty.  In the past, completing such a move whether, whether at the direction of a safety official or not, would be either on duty not driving if off a public highway, or driving on a public highway. In this new world, this move can be done while off duty, and would not require a restart of a driver’s rest period. Again, the CMV cannot be moved any further than the nearest reasonable rest and safe area to complete the rest break.

Male driver driving during the day.


1. May a driver, who drops his or her last load at a receiver’s facility use personal conveyance to return to their normal work location (i.e. home or terminal?)

No. Returning home or to the terminal from a dispatched trip is a continuation of the trip, and therefore cannot be considered personal conveyance.

2. The guidance allows for “authorized use of a CMV to travel home after working at an offsite location.” What is meant by the term “offsite” when used in this context?

The term refers to a location, other than a carrier’s terminal or a shipper’s or receiver’s facility, where a driver works for a temporary period for a particular job. Specifically, this term is intended for construction and utility companies that set up base camps near a major job and operate from there for days or weeks at a time. These remote locations are considered “offsite” locations. Therefore, travel between home and that offsite location is considered commuting time, and qualifies as personal conveyance.

3. Is personal conveyance treated any differently when the driver is hauling hazardous materials?

No. There is no restriction on personal conveyance regarding hazardous materials transportation, provided that the driver complies with provisions of 49 CFR parts 177 and 397.

4. Can a driver who claims the short haul exception use personal conveyance?

Yes, there is no connection between personal conveyance and the short-haul exception. As always, off-duty time does not extend the 12-hour duty time limitation.

5. How is personal conveyance time calculated in the hours-of-service rules?

Time spent under personal conveyance is off-duty time.

6. May a driver use personal conveyance when they run out of available (driving/on-duty) hours?

No, except for the one exception described in the guidance where a driver who runs out of hours while at a shipper’s or receiver’s facility may drive from that facility to a nearby, safe location to park, provided that the driver allows adequate time to obtain rest in accordance with daily minimum off-duty periods under the Hours of Service rules before beginning to drive. Personal conveyance is those times where a driver is operating solely for a non-business purpose and cannot be used to extend the duty day.

7. Are there maximum distance time or distance limits for the use of personal conveyance?

No. However, it is important to note that the provision in §392.3 of the FMCSRs, prohibiting the operation of a commercial motor vehicle while fatigued, continues to apply. Therefore, a driver must get adequate rest before returning to driving.

8. If a driver picks up the commercial motor vehicle from a repair facility once repairs are complete, would the driver be allowed to use personal conveyance to their residence from the repair shop?

No, travel for repair and maintenance work is being done in the furtherance of the business and is considered on-duty time.

9. Can a loaded vehicle be used as personal conveyance?

Yes. Determining personal conveyance is based on the nature of the movement, not whether the vehicle is laden.

10. Can personal conveyance time be combined with other off-duty time to complete a 10 or 34-hour break?

Yes, since PC is off-duty time. However, it is important to note that the provision in §392.3 of the FMCSRs, prohibiting the operation of a commercial motor vehicle while ill or fatigued continues to apply.

11. Can a driver be inspected during personal conveyance? If so, what is the driver’s duty status during the inspection?

Yes. Since the driver is still subject to the FMCSRs, the driver or vehicle can be inspected. The driver’s duty status would be “on-duty, not driving.” during the inspection.

Can you give specific examples of appropriate uses of a CMV while off-duty for personal conveyance?

1. Time spent travelling from a driver’s in transit lodging (such as a motel or truck stop) to restaurants and entertainment facilities.

2. Commuting between the driver’s terminal and his or her residence, between trailer drop lots and the driver’s residence, and between work sites and his or her residence. In these scenarios, the commuting distance combined with the release from work and start to work times must allow the driver enough time to obtain the required restorative rest as to ensure the driver is not fatigued.

3. Time spent travelling to a nearby, reasonable, safe location to obtain the required rest after loading or unloading. The time driving under personal conveyance must allow the driver adequate time to obtain the required rest in accordance with minimum off-duty periods under 49 CFR 395.3(a)(l) (property-carrying vehicles) or 395.5(a) (passenger-carrying vehicles) before returning to on-duty driving, and the resting location must be the first such location reasonably available.

4. Moving a CMV at the request of a safety official during the driver’s off-duty time.

5. Time spent travelling in a motor coach without passengers to en route lodging (such as motel or truck stop), or to restaurants and entertainment facilities and back to the lodging. In this scenario, the driver of the motor coach can claim personal conveyance provided the driver is off-duty. Other off-duty drivers may be on board the vehicle and are not considered passengers.

6. Time spent transporting personal property while off-duty.

7. Authorized use of a CMV to travel home after working at an offsite location.

Can you give examples of uses of a CMV that would NOT qualify as personal conveyance?

1. The movement of a CMV in order to enhance the operational readiness of a motor carrier. For example, bypassing available resting locations in order to get closer to the next loading or unloading point or other scheduled motor carrier destination.

2. After delivering a towed unit, and the towing unit no longer meets the definition of a CMV, the driver returns to the point of origin under the direction of the motor carrier to pick up another towed unit.

3. Continuation of a CMV trip in interstate commerce in order to fulfil a business purpose, including bobtailing or operating with an empty trailer in order to retrieve another load or repositioning a CMV (tractor or trailer) at the direction of the motor carrier.

4. Time spent driving a passenger-carrying CMV while passenger(s) are on board. Off-duty drivers are not considered passengers when travelling to a common destination of their own choice within the scope of this guidance.

5. Time spent transporting a CMV to a facility to have vehicle maintenance performed.

For your convenience I have included a link ‘How a Safety Administrator Can Turn on Personal Conveyance’ in our BigRoad HOS Solution. I have also included a second link ‘How a Driver Can Use Personal Conveyance’ on a mobile device.